Is Seeing Really Believing? 眼見真為憑?

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2018/05/08 第363期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

   
 

Is Seeing Really Believing?  眼見真為憑?

by Bruce E. Bagnell

A rare disorder called Charles Bonnet Syndrome was discovered more than 200 years ago and is only now being better understood.
一種稱為邦納特症候群的罕見疾病在兩百多年前被發現,如今人們對它更加了解。

  

   In 1760, Charles Bonnet, a Swiss naturalist and philosopher, described his grandfather’s odd affliction that caused unexplained hallucinations to occur. Bonnet knew that these delusions were not the result of a mental health issue, as he knew his grandfather to be a __1__ man who was in good health. In other words, the old man was perfectly sane and healthy, __2__ his sight. Bonnet was intrigued by his grandfather’s condition and carefully studied it. He found that these hallucinations were a result of his poor sight. As a result of his research, this condition is now called Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS).
  The name may not be familiar, but all eye specialists are familiar with it. Statistics about the disorder are hard to __3__ because many sufferers of CBS do not report it. Most people associate hallucinations with drug addiction or insanity, so CBS patients are often unwilling to __4__ their condition. What is known is that CBS is not uncommon. A lessening or even loss of healthy vision as we age is perfectly __5__. Our brains __6__ fill in images that they think we should be seeing when actual visual information is not available. There is no cure for CBS. But luckily, in most cases, the delusions pass within a year or two after they begin. Hallucinations may cause __7__ when they first appear. However, with an understanding of the condition, sufferers can learn to deal with these momentary fantasies and lead active, healthy lives.
1. (A) sustainable  (B) nutritious  (C) respectable  (D) harmful
2. (A) in addition to  (B) in regard to  (C) such as  (D) except for
3. (A) come by  (B) depend on  (C) head for  (D) escape from
4. (A) prolong  (B) divulge  (C) conduct  (D) suffocate
5. (A) adorable  (B) sterile  (C) normal  (D) diverse
6. (A) frankly  (B) narrowly  (C) physically  (D) apparently
7. (A) anxiety  (B) digestion  (C) similarity  (D) retirement

 

syndrome n. 症候群;綜合症
naturalist n. 博物學家
philosopher n. 哲學家
affliction n. 疾病,痛苦
: afflict vt. 折磨(常用被動)
hallucination n. 幻覺
delusion n. 錯覺;妄想
momentary a. 短暫的,瞬間的

1. in other words  換句話說,也就是說
: to put it differently
= that is (to say)
James is a man of his word. In other words, he always keeps his promises.
詹姆士是個守信的人。換句話說,他總是信守諾言。

2. be intrigued by…  因……著迷
intrigue vt. 使著迷
The children were all intrigued by Roger’s stories of his adventures.
孩子們全都為羅傑的冒險故事著迷。

3. associate A with B  將 A 與 B 聯想在一起
associate vt. 聯想
Most people associate red roses with love.
大多數人把紅玫瑰與愛情聯想在一起。

4. be unwilling to V  不願意(做)……
: be willing to V  願意(做)……
Linda was unwilling to forgive John because she didn’t think his apology was sincere.
琳達不願意原諒約翰,因為她認為他的道歉不夠誠懇。
The job may be difficult, but I’m willing to give it a try.
這工作也許困難,但我願意嘗試。

5. fill in…  填充∕填寫……
Fill in these forms before you see the doctor.
看醫生之前先填好這些表格。

1. disorder n. 疾病;失調
To minimize the problems associated with this disorder, patients are advised not to drink alcohol.
為了減低與該疾病相關的問題,病人被建議不要喝酒。
*minimize vt. 使減到最小,極小化

2. discover vt. 發現;挖掘
: discovery n. 發現
The artifacts that were recently discovered here date back thousands of years.
最近在此處挖掘出的古代文物可追溯至好幾千年前。
*artifact n. 古代文物
Researchers are always making fascinating discoveries.
研究人員總有令人驚艷的發現。

3. perfectly adv. 完全地,十足地
: imperfectly adv. 不完美地
Some of the criticisms of your work are perfectly valid.
有些對你作品的批評是完全有根據的。
*valid a. 有根據的;確鑿的
It’s understood that a new employee will do things imperfectly.
新員工未能將事情做到完美是可以理解的。

4. sane a. 神智正常的;明智的
: insane a. 瘋狂的;錯亂的
go insane  發狂,發瘋
According to the doctor, Matt was sane at the time of the murder.
根據醫師的說法,麥特在謀殺案事發時是神智清楚的。
The woman went insane after her husband committed suicide.
那個女人在丈夫自殺後就發瘋了。

5. addiction n. 成癮,上癮
: addicted a. 上癮的;沉迷的
be addicted to N/V-ing  沉迷於……
Martin’s addiction to alcohol has ruined his career.
馬丁對酒的沉迷毀了他的事業。
Many elementary students are hopelessly addicted to mobile games.
許多小學生無可救藥地迷上了手遊。
*hopelessly adv. 無可救藥地

6. lessen vi. & vt. 減輕(本文為動名詞用法)
The doctor gave the patient an injection to lessen the pain.
醫生替病患注射一劑藥以減輕疼痛。
*injection n. 注射

7. vision n. 視力;遠見
Vicky has almost no vision in her left eye.
薇琪左眼的視力很差。
The government official is a man of vision.
那位政府官員是位有遠見的人。

8. fantasy n. 幻想,空想
Reading that fantasy novel will instantly put you under its spell.
閱讀那本奇幻小說會立刻讓你著迷。
*under sb/sth’s spell  為某人∕某事物著迷

9. active a. 積極的,主動的
Considering that she’s 80 years old, my grandmother is still very active.
就八十歲高齡來說,我祖母仍然相當活躍。

 

1. …as he knew his grandfather to be a respectable man who was in good health.
……因為他認為祖父是一位身體健康的可敬人士。

理由:
a. (A) sustainable a. 永續的;能維持的
According to the report, this worldwide economic growth is sustainable.
根據這份報告,全球的經濟會持續成長。
(B) nutritious a. 有營養的
Everyone benefits from plenty of exercise, rest, and a nutritious diet.
每個人都能從大量運動、休息及營養的飲食中獲益。
(C) respectable a. 值得尊敬的
We should always conduct ourselves in a respectable fashion.
我們的行為舉止應該要讓人值得尊敬。
*in a / an… fashion  以……的方式
(D) harmful a. 有害的
Sunglasses help block out harmful UV rays.
太陽眼鏡有助於阻擋有害的紫外線。
*block out…  把……阻擋在外
b. 根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。

2. In other words, the old man was perfectly sane and healthy, except for his sight.
換句話說,除了視力以外,這位老先生的心智十分健全也非常健康。

理由:
a. (A) in addition to…  除了……(還有……)(本身包含在內)
: apart from…
In addition to the cost, we need to consider the time.
除了成本之外,我們還需要考慮到時間。
(B) in / with regard to…  關於……
I sent an e-mail to Paul in regard to the plan for Thursday.
我寄給保羅一封關於週四計畫的電子郵件。
(C) such as…  例如∕諸如……
Some research has indicated that caffeine may prevent diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
某個研究指出咖啡因可以預防疾病,像是阿茲海默症。
*indicate vt. 指出;指示
(D) except for…  
除了……外(本身不包含在內)
All of us signed up for the French class except for Emily.
除了愛蜜麗,我們都報名上法文課。
b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。

3. Statistics about the disorder are hard to come by because many sufferers of CBS do not report it.
關於這種失調的統計數據很難取得,因為許多邦納特症候群患者都不會通報。

理由:
a. (A) come by…  取得∕獲得……
How did you come by that scar on your face?
你臉上的疤是怎麼來的?
(B) depend on…  依賴∕依靠……
Kevin is trustworthy, so you can depend on him for anything.
凱文值得信任,所以你任何事都可以依賴他。
(C) head for…  動身前往……
Let’s head for the restaurant to get a bite to eat.
咱們去那家餐廳吃點東西吧。
(D) escape from…  從……逃跑∕逃走
The fly was trying desperately to escape from the spider’s web.
這隻蒼蠅拼命想逃離蜘蛛網。
*desperately adv. 拼命地
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

4. Most people associate hallucinations with drug addiction or insanity, so CBS patients are often unwilling to divulge their condition.
大多數人都會將幻覺與毒癮或精神失常聯想在一起,因此邦納特症候群患者經常不願意透露他們的病情。

理由:
a. (A) prolong vt. 延長;拖延
Eric’s presentation is definitely going to prolong the meeting.
艾瑞克的報告絕對會拖長開會的時間。
(B) divulge vt. 洩漏;透露
I unintentionally divulged Nathan’s big secret to Cathy.
我不小心把內森的大祕密洩漏給凱西了。
*unintentionally adv. 無意間
(C) conduct vt. 執行,實行
: conduct a survey  進行一項調查
Gary conducted a survey about the cafeteria food at his school.
蓋瑞針對學校自助餐進行了一項調查。
(D) suffocate vt. & vi.(使)窒息
The unpleasant cigarette smoke almost suffocated me.
這令人討厭的菸味讓我快要沒辦法呼吸。
Infants risk suffocating while sleeping on adult mattresses.
嬰兒若睡在成人的床墊上會有窒息的危險。
*mattress n. 床墊
b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。

5. A lessening or even loss of healthy vision as we age is perfectly normal.
隨著年齡的增長,我們的健康視力下降或甚至喪失都是完全正常的事。

理由:
a. (A) adorable a. 可愛的;討喜的
The bride was pretty, but the adorable flower girl stole the show.
新娘雖然很美,卻被可愛的花童搶去了風頭。
*steal the show  搶盡風頭;搶戲
(B) sterile a. 無法生育的
Jessica had learned early in her marriage that her husband was sterile.
潔西卡結婚不久就得知她的丈夫不能生育。
(C) normal a. 正常的
Airlines get more than three times the normal amount of business during holidays.
假日期間,航空公司的生意比平常好三倍以上。
(D) diverse a. 各式各樣的,多樣的
The United States is known for its diverse culture.
美國因其多元的文化而著名。
b. 根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。

6. Our brains apparently fill in images that they think we should be seeing when actual visual information is not available.
顯然我們的大腦會在真正的視覺信息不存在的情況填入一些其認為我們應該看得到的影像。

理由:
a. (A) frankly adv. 坦白地,直率地
: Frankly speaking, S + V  坦白說,……
Frankly speaking, Larry is not the man I want for this project.
坦白說,賴瑞不是我在這項計畫要找的人。
(B) narrowly adv. 勉強地,驚險地
We narrowly escaped being injured in the accident.
我們驚險地在那意外中毫髮無傷。
(C) physically adv. 身體上地
Teaching jobs can be both physically and intellectually demanding.
教學是勞心勞力的工作。
*intellectually adv. 智力上地
(D) apparently adv. 顯然地;似乎
We were surprised when Ken’s apparently successful company declared bankruptcy.
當阿肯看似相當成功的公司宣布破產時,我們都大感震驚。
b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。

7. Hallucinations may cause anxiety when they first appear.
當幻覺最初出現時可能會引起焦慮。

理由:
a. (A) anxiety n. 焦慮,憂心
Andrew lit a cigarette, trying to mask his anxiety.
安德魯點了根菸,試圖掩飾自己的焦慮。
*mask vt. 偽裝,掩飾 & n. 面具
(B) digestion n. 消化
The doctor suggested David take in more fruits and vegetables to help his digestion.
醫生建議大衛攝取蔬果以幫助消化。
(C) similarity n. 相似(處)
There are a few similarities between the two products.
這兩種產品有些許相似之處。
(D) retirement n. 退休
The mayor officially announced his retirement yesterday.
這位市長昨天正式宣布他退休的事。
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

 

眼見真為憑?
一種稱為邦納特症候群的罕見疾病在兩百多年前被發現,如今人們對它更加了解。  

  1760 年,查爾斯‧邦納特 ── 一位瑞士博物學家與哲學家 ── 描述他祖父的古怪疾病,該病使他產生莫名幻覺。邦納特知道這些錯覺不是心理健康問題所造成,因為他認為祖父是一位身體健康的可敬人士。換句話說,除了視力以外,這位老先生的心智十分健全也非常健康。邦納特對於祖父的病情深感好奇並仔細研究它。他發現這些幻覺都是因為視力不佳所造成。由於他的研究,這種疾病如今被稱為邦納特症候群(CBS)。
  這個名字聽起來或許不太熟悉,但所有的眼科專家都對它耳熟能詳。關於這種失調的統計數據很難取得,因為許多邦納特症候群患者都不會通報。大多數人都會將幻覺與毒癮或精神失常聯想在一起,因此邦納特症候群患者經常不願意透露他們的病情。目前已知的是邦納特症候群並不罕見。隨著年齡的增長,我們的健康視力下降或甚至喪失都是完全正常的事。顯然我們的大腦會在真正的視覺信息不存在的情況填入一些其認為我們應該看得到的影像。邦納特症候群是不治之症。但值得慶幸的是,在大多數情況下,錯覺會在開始產生的一至兩年後消失。當幻覺最初出現時可能會引起焦慮。然而,只要了解這種病情,患者就能夠學習應付這些短暫的幻覺,並過著積極又健康的人生。
答案: 1. C 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. D 7. A

 
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